First successful simulations of how galaxy shapes are formed

Galaxies by intermittent ring releases of stellar seeds from two attached galactic seeds (double disc galaxy, Type 3–1). (a) no rotation of the two galactic seeds Ω1.1 = 0, (b) —(e) rotation by Ω1.1 = π/12, π/8, π/6, π/4. Credit: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences (2023). DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422500049

Standard cosmology can answer almost nothing about how the structure of a galaxy is formed. Why the visible matters of a disk galaxy are distributed in a thin plane as opposed to how dark matter occurs in a spherical distribution is a critical open question. In a paper recently published in Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Dr. Nagao offers a promising theory of galaxy formation. Simulations by the Energy Circulation Theory, which are characterized by the force working on momentums, produced galaxy shapes such as disk, double–disk with or without spiral arms, ring, barred ring, and barred arm galaxies as well as bulge and bar–bulge forms.

The energy circulation theory (ECT) claims that there is a force working between momentums whereas the effects of gravitational force is based on magnitudes of energies. The new force is named the “fundamental force,” presentations of which are electric, magnetic, strong and weak forces. Energy movements form energy circulations according to the fundamental force. As the space expands, an early energy circulation decomposes to local circulations simultaneously on the whole circumference, called the cyclic decomposition. After plural rounds of cyclic decomposition, the resulting energy circulations, which are named the “galactic seed,” start to release daughter circulations, known as stellar seeds.

A high energy galactic seed separates into two galactic seeds as the space expands. There are three types of galaxies formed from the origin of stellar seed release: isolated single galactic seed, binary rotating seeds and two attached seeds. There are two types of stellar seed releases; the linear release and the ring release, where stellar seeds are released simultaneously on the entire circumference. Depending on the type of galactic seeds and the linear or ring releases of stellar seeds, various shapes of stellar distribution are obtained.

Intermittent ring releases of a single galactic seed produce a disk galaxy. Two attached galactic seeds showed typical patterns of spiral disk galaxies after intermittent ring releases (double disk galaxy). If the two seeds are rotating, spiral arms emerged (see the figure above).

These should be worthwhile to be checked and validated by physicists because there is no other model that has theoretically and systemically demonstrated the observed features of the universe.

The paper “Formation of Major Types of Galaxies Based on the Energy Circulation Theory” can be found in the Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences journal.

More information:
Shigeto Nagao, Formation of Major Types of Galaxies Based on the Energy Circulation Theory, Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences (2023). DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422500049

First successful simulations of how galaxy shapes are formed (2023, March 30)
retrieved 30 March 2023

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